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High-frequency (> 20 MHz) power Doppler ultrasound is frequently used to quantify vascularity in preclinical studies of small animal angiogenic models, but quantitative images can be difficult to obtain in the presence of flow artifacts. To improve flow quantification, color pixel density (CPD) can be plotted as a function of wall filter cutoff velocity to produce a wall-filter selection curve that can be used to estimate actual vascular volume fraction. A mathematical model based on receiver operating characteristic statistics is developed to study the behavior of wall-filter selection curves. The model is compared to experimental data acquired with a 30-MHz transducer and a custom-designed multiple-vessel flow phantom capable of mimicking a range of blood vessel sizes (200-300 ??m), blood flow velocities (1-10 mm/s), and blood vessel orientations. At high flow rates, wall-filter selection curves for multiple-vessel regions include a plateau whose CPD corresponds with the total vascular volume fraction. Conversely, the vascular volume fraction of a subset of vessels is obtained at low flow rates. Detection of the volume fraction of all vessels is ensured when a plateau is > 0.5 mm/s in length and begins at a wall filter cutoff < 2 mm/s.