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Method for determining the maximum allowable penetration level of distributed generation without steady-state voltage violations

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4 Author(s)
Ayres, H.M. ; Dept. of Electr. Energy Syst., Univ. of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil ; Freitas, W. ; de Almeida, M.C. ; da Silva, L.C.P.

One of the main factors that may limit the penetration level of distributed generation (DG) in typical distribution systems is the steady-state voltage rise. The maximum amount of active power supplied by distributed generators into each system bus without causing voltage violations can be determined by using repetitive power flow studies. However, this task is laborious and usually time-consuming, since different loading level and generation operation modes have to be evaluated. Therefore this article presents a method that, based on only one power flow solution and one matrix operation, can directly determine the maximum power that can be injected by distributed generators into each system bus without leading to steady-state voltage violations. This method is based on the determination of voltage sensitivities from a linearised power system model. In addition, this article proposes a numerical index to quantify the responsibility of each generator for the voltage level rise in a multi-DG system. Based on this index, utility managers can decide which generators, and in which degree, should be penalised by the voltage rise or rewarded by not depreciating the voltage profile. The method is applied to a 70-bus distribution network. The results are compared with those obtained by repetitive power flow solutions in order to validate the proposed method.

Published in:

Generation, Transmission & Distribution, IET  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 4 )