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We propose a system to characterize the 3-D diffusion properties of the probing bead trapped by a photonic-force microscope. We follow a model-based approach, where the model of the dynamics of the bead is given by the Langevin equation. Our procedure combines software and analog hardware to measure the corresponding stiffness matrix. We are able to estimate all its elements in real time, including off-diagonal terms. To achieve our goal, we have built a simple analog computer that performs a continuous preprocessing of the data, which can be subsequently digitized at a much lower rate than is otherwise required. We also provide an effective numerical algorithm for compensating the correlation bias introduced by a quadrant photodiode detector in the microscope. We validate our approach using simulated data and show that our bias-compensation scheme effectively improves the accuracy of the system. Moreover, we perform experiments with the real system and demonstrate real-time capabilities. Finally, we suggest a simple adjunction that would allow one to determine the mass matrix as well.