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Based on the requirements of low energy consumption and high bandwidth efficiency, a primary area of study is how to improve the estimation accuracy and tracking performance for target localization in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a weighted sign algorithm (WSA) for positioning and tracking in wireless sensor networks. In terms of the reliability of distance estimation, the location estimation of a target is formulated as a weighted least squares (WLS) problem, which is solved based on the WSA in an iterative and decentralized manner. We also propose a cooperative message-passing algorithm for inter-sensor information exchange, adaptively picking the participating sensor nodes, and making the paths for cyclic routing in the network. On each routing path, a target's location estimate is updated on each cycle and continues among the participating sensor nodes that surround the target. To ensure that the WSA-based scheme has a convergence behavior, a convergence analysis is given. Computer simulation results demonstrate that, as compared with previous methods, our proposed scheme has a faster convergence rate, better location accuracy, and improved tracking performance.