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The antenna characteristics are described of a single-arm spiral (SAS) antenna. A balun circuit, required for a conventional two-arm balanced-mode spiral (TAS), is not necessary for feeding this SAS. First, the radiation pattern of an SAS having a disc/ground-plane is investigated. When the radius of the disc is smaller than the radius of the first-mode active region on the spiral and the spacing between the disc and spiral plane is small, the SAS is found to radiate a circularly polarized (CP) bidirectional beam, whose radiation pattern is almost symmetric with respect to the antenna axis normal to the spiral plane. Second, from a practical standpoint, the CP bidirectional beam is transformed into a CP unidirectional beam by placing a conducting cavity behind an SAS with a disc. It is revealed that the SAS has a good VSWR (less than 2) and a good axial ratio (less than 3 dB) over a design frequency range of 3 GHz to 10 GHz, where a cavity/antenna height of 7 mm (0.07 wavelength at the lowest design frequency) is chosen. The frequency response of the gain for the SAS is found to be similar to that for a conventional TAS, and the radiation efficiency for the SAS is slightly larger than that for the TAS. It is concluded that the SAS with a small disc backed by a cavity realizes a circularly polarized, low-profile, wideband antenna with a simple feed system that does not require a balun circuit.
Date of Publication: May 2010