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Optimal Frequency for Wireless Power Transmission Into Dispersive Tissue

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3 Author(s)
Poon, A.S.Y. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA ; O'Driscoll, S. ; Meng, T.H.

RF wireless interface enables remotely-powered implantable devices. Current studies in wireless power transmission into biological tissue tend to operate below 10 MHz due to tissue absorption loss, which results in large receive antennas. This paper examines the range of frequencies that will optimize the tradeoff between received power and tissue absorption. It first models biological tissue as a dispersive dielectric in a homogeneous medium and performs full-wave analysis to show that the optimal frequency is above 1 GHz for small receive coil and typical transmit-receive separations. Then, it includes the air-tissue interface and models human body as a planarly layered medium. The optimal frequency is shown to remain in the GHz-range. Finally, electromagnetic simulations are performed to include the effect of load impedance and look at the matched power gain. The optimal frequency is in the GHz-range for mm-sized transmit antenna and shifts to the sub-GHz range for cm-sized transmit antenna. The multiple orders of magnitude increase in the operating frequency enables dramatic miniaturization of implantable devices.

Published in:

Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:58 ,  Issue: 5 )