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This study evaluates the osteoconductive property of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) material and the potential application of nano-HA as artificial bone in repairing bone defects, and tries to analyse the scientific explanation of these. The animal model of bone defects is made on the bilateral radius of 39 New Zealand white rabbits, which are divided into an experimental group (the bone defect is repaired with nano-HA artificial bone), a control group (the bone defect is repaired with HA artificial bone) and a blank group (the defect is empty) randomly. The bone conduction function of different materials is evaluated by gross observation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection in serum, histopathological study, X-ray examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical analysis at the 4th, 8th and 12th week postoperatively. The experimental group is found to stimulate more bony callus than the control and blank groups. These differences in bone conduction function are statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, nano-HA artificial bone can be potentially applied to the treatment of bone defects.