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Vegetation biomass is an important parameter in the carbon cycle study. In this paper, a new technique to estimate aboveground vegetation wet biomass based on the Microwave Vegetation Indices (MVIs), which are computed through the observed brightness temperature of AMSR-E/Aqua under two adjacent frequencies, has been developed. The MVIs can provide significant new information compared with the conventional optical vegetation indices since the microwave measurements are sensitive not only to the leafy part of vegetation properties but also to the properties of the overall vegetation canopy where the microwave sensor can Â¿seeÂ¿ through. We know that the absorption effect of vegetation canopy is mostly controlled by the total wet biomass. In this technique, we first retrieve the single scattering albedo and the optical thickness based on model simulations under AMSR-E configuration. Then, the estimated above two properties are used to derive the absorption fraction of vegetation. Finally, it can be related to the aboveground vegetation wet biomass.