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We present terahertz-frequency characterization of doped silicon via a multiphysics numerical technique that couples ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) simulation of carrier transport and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solver of Maxwell’s curl equations. We elucidate the importance of rigorous enforcement of Gauss’s law, in order to avoid unphysical charge buildup and enhance solver accuracy. The calculated complex conductivity of doped bulk silicon shows excellent agreement with available experimental data. This comprehensive microscopic simulator is a valuable predictive tool in the terahertz frequency range, where experimental data are scarce and the Drude model inadequate.