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The development of new high temperature electronics (HTE)/systems is the key to achieving high reliability safety critical operations in aerospace, automotive and well-logging applications. Reliability issues associated with the operation of HTE devices have been shown to account for some of the recent aircraft crashes as well as failures of the electronic control Unit in modern vehicles. The reliability of electronic systems is partly dependent on its operating ambient conditions; and reliability generally decreases in harsh operating conditions. The life expectancy of components and systems is known to reduce exponentially as the operating temperature increases; adversely impacting long-term system reliability. As under-bonnet, aerospace and well-logging applications require the direct exposure of sensors to very harsh conditions - these applications demand new HTE systems which can operate reliably in harsh conditions whilst preserving their properties/functions over long operating periods. The packaging and interconnection of the new HTE systems requires better understanding of the complex interactions between HTE system parameters and specific environmental conditions. The paper presents an overview of HTE research, reviews the trends in materials, component packaging and interconnect technology. The paper also outlines the key challenges in HTE research and the outstanding R&D issues.