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An Accurate Calibrate-Able Multiharmonic Active Load–Pull System Based on the Envelope Load–Pull Concept

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6 Author(s)
Mohammad S. Hashmi ; Centre for High Frequency Engineering, Cardiff University, UK ; Alan L. Clarke ; Simon P. Woodington ; Jonathan Lees
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After calibration, since the systematic imperfections of the envelop load-pull (ELP) components were now fully accounted for, the user is able to rapidly set accurate terminations with full Smith chart coverage. This functionality has been achieved by optimizing the hardware configuration of the envelop load-pull concept. Development of a system whose systematic errors could be described by a magnitude invariant error flow model was critical. As a consequence, a robust calibration mechanism, that is analogous to the one-port error correction of a vector network analyzer, was exploited and comprehensively verified. After calibration, since the systematic imperfections of the ELP components were now fully accounted for, the user is able to set accurately terminations with full Smith chart coverage. Finally, measurements on commercially available transistor devices are presented that verify the rapid nature, accuracy, flexibility, reliability, and ease of calibration of the multiharmonic load-pull system.

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IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques  (Volume:58 ,  Issue: 3 )