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Monte Carlo simulations are widely used in systems design. This paper presents a unified simulation approach to the evaluation of two telephone switchboard systems using such techniques. Since technical competence and user satisfaction are equally important for an overall system success, this approach not only provides system designers with a means to obtain an insight into the expected efficiency of a new system, but it also helps to identify some potential human factors parameters that need to be carefully investigated early in the design stage. Hence, it does appear that further development and application of these techniques would serve to aid human factors studies in complex systems design. On a cost-effectiveness basis, programming effort and computer cost for this study are relatively insignificant.