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Increasingly, digital computers are being incorporated as major hard-ware subsystems in today's large support and operational systems. As a result, computer programs and complex operational procedures, software, are also becoming major system elements. Contrary to much current practice, software must be managed, engineered, and controlled in the same manner as hardware if past pitfalls are to be avoided. NASA's NPC 500-1 and the USAF 375 series establish a basis for an effective hardware/software systems development methodology that must be adopted by both hardware and software engineers and managers.