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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Even in predominantly static sensor networks, it is possible to have a few mobile nodes. Mobility of nodes in WSNs adds a significant challenge. In this article we present a survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks and highlight the advantages/disadvantages and performance issues of each routing technique. The aim is to identify routing protocols that will be able to support the mobility of sensor nodes in WSNs consisting of both static and mobile (mixed WSN) nodes. The article concludes by presenting an approach for such a routing protocol.
Date of Conference: 14-16 Dec. 2009