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In this correspondence, we propose a novel, efficient, and effective Refined Histogram (RH) for modeling the wavelet subband detail coefficients and present a new image signature based on the RH model for supervised texture classification. Our RH makes use of a step function with exponentially increasing intervals to model the histogram of detail coefficients, and the concatenation of the RH model parameters for all wavelet subbands forms the so-called RH signature. To justify the usefulness of the RH signature, we discuss and investigate some of its statistical properties. These properties would clarify the sufficiency of the signature to characterize the wavelet subband information. In addition, we shall also present an efficient RH signature extraction algorithm based on the coefficient-counting technique, which helps to speed up the overall classification system performance. We apply the RH signature to texture classification using the well-known databases. Experimental results show that our proposed RH signature in conjunction with the use of symmetrized Kullback-Leibler divergence gives a satisfactory classification performance compared with the current state-of-the-art methods.