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Proxying is a simple and effective means of allowing network hosts to sleep while maintaining network presence. It is the use of a low-power entity to maintain presence on the network for a high-power device like a PC. The component that does this, the proxy, can be internal to a device (for example, in the network interface chip within a PC), in an immediately adjacent network switch or router, or even another PC on the subnet. The proxy enables a host to transition into and out of sleep transparently to the network. Use of a proxy requires no infrastructure changes such as changing existing protocols, or maintaining state in routers or switches. Network connectivity proxying offers a chance to both save large amounts of energy and add functionality, at very low cost.