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The performance of statistical multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar configurations that use distributed antennas is analyzed in this paper. Statistical MIMO radars exploit angular diversity to mitigate the impact of radar cross section (RCS) fluctuations. The fluctuations can be modeled with the Swerling scattering model consisting of four different cases with either fast or slow target RCS fluctuations. In this paper, the performance of different statistical MIMO radar configurations is compared in the different Swerling cases. Both target detection and direction of arrival estimation tasks are considered. We derive the optimal test statistics for target detection for non-orthogonal waveforms in all the Swerling cases in single-pulse as well as multi-pulse scenarios. We derive a closed-form density function for the test statistics under null and alternate hypotheses in the Swerling cases 1 and 2. For orthogonal waveforms in cases 3 and 4, the density function is given as a convolution involving a transcendental function. A suboptimal detector having a closed-form density function in cases 3 and 4 when the waveforms are orthogonal is introduced as well. In the direction finding task, confidence bounds of the squared estimation error of the different configurations are compared. The comparison is done in terms of the confidence bounds as the Cramer-Rao bounds are not defined for all the cases and configurations. The pros and cons of the angular diversity and each radar configuration are pointed out in different fluctuation scenarios.
Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of (Volume:4 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Feb. 2010