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A velocity-modulated electron-beam microwave tube is described which can be operated as a frequency divider. Its operation is analyzed in terms of velocity-modulation bunching theory, neglecting space-charge forces. Because of the existence of two stable states opposite in phase, such a divider can be advantageously employed in a microwave logical system. The transient behavior of the device is discussed, particularly with reference to the time required to switch the device from one of its stable states to the other. Factors involved in the minimization of this time interval are analyzed.
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