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As early as 1948, Shockley and Pearson1 showed that the conductivity of an evaporated germanium film could be modulated by means of an electric field applied normal to the surface. One surprising result of this work was that only about 10% of the charge induced by the field contributed to the conductivity. The reason for this discrepancy was explained by J. Bardeen as being due to the presence of surface states that immobilize the induced charge.
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