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In-situ Measurements of Magnetic Properties in Vacuum-Deposited Permalloy Films

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The quasi-static magnetic properties of vacuum-deposited Permalloy films of zero-magnetostrictive composition are examined in situ in an evaporator equipped with a laser-operated Kerr magneto-optic hysteresigraph. The coercive force, which depends strongly upon the film thickness, is large (Hc > 20 Oe) when the hysteresis loop is first observable with a thickness of ∼50 Å for low substrate temperatures (T < 50°C) and ∼100 Å for high substrate temperatures (T > 100°C). There are two peaks of coercivity, at ∼400 Å and ∼1000 Å; the two are thought to be related, respectively, to the transitions from the Néel to the cross-tie walls, and from the cross-tie to the Bloch walls. Two distinct components of the uniaxial anisotropy field are identified, both of which are characteristic of fabrication parameters: K1, which is difficult to re-orient once the anisotropy is induced; and K2, which is readily re-oriented (with time constant less than 10 sec) along any angle between the easy and the hard axis. The net anisotropy field and the easy-axis orientation, both of which are affected by the K2 components, can be calculated for a given set of fabrication parameters. Experimental results agree well with the calculated values. The angular dispersion does not appear to be affected by the amplitude of the orienting field H or the nature of the field (a.c. or d.c.) when H > Hc. There is a slight increase in angular dispersion as the K2 component of the anisotropy rotates from the easy to the hard axis.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 6 )

Date of Publication:

Nov. 1966

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