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The use of solder pads to join multi-pad integrated circuit chips to modules provides a highly reliable, rugged interconnection technology. This paper reports some important aspects of the reliability evaluation that was carried out on the “controlled chip collapse” interconnection system developed by IBM. Included are an analysis of the mechanics of the system, a model to establish the relationship among different thermal fatigue testing conditions, and experimental verification of the model. In the course of this work, the chip failure rate of the interconnection as used in present designs was predicted to be better than 10−7%/1000 hours for the mechanism studied.
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