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This paper deals with the mechanical reliability of controlled collapse solder joints in modules subjected to the thermal fatigue conditions of machine usage. Particular emphasis is placed on design variability and how the shape and dimensions of the joint and chip affect reliability. A systematic technique is presented to optimize pad dimensions. A new experimental method to characterize chip-to-substrate interconnections—the torque test—is described and analyzed. Its applicability to design evaluation is discussed and representative data are analyzed. The relationship between torque test measurements and fatigue is discussed.
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