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Interface Imaging by Scanning Internal Photoemission

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2 Author(s)
DiStefano, T.H. ; IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA ; Viggiano, J.M.

A scanning internal photoemission (SIP) technique is used to obtain a high resolution map or image of the potential energy barrier at an insulator interface. The image is produced by displaying the internal photocurrent produced by a monochromatic beam of light scanned across the sample. A special technique was developed for focusing the light to a spot less than one micrometer in diameter. Photoemission images of a Si-SiO2 interface “stained” with a fractional monolayer of sodium are presented along with photoemission and reflectively images of a Nb2O5-Bi interface. These SIP images show inhomogeneities related to structural variations, impurities, and defects at the interface that previously were inaccessible to observation.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:18 ,  Issue: 2 )