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Photochemical Decomposition Mechanisms for AZ-Type Photoresists

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2 Author(s)
J. Pacansky ; IBM Research Division laboratory, 5600 Cottle Road, San Jose, California 95193, USA ; J. R. Lyerla

The photochemical decomposition mechanism of orthonaphthoquinonediazides has been investigated principally by infrared and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that the decomposition proceeds via a ketene intermediate to a photoproduct, the nature of which depends on the reaction conditions. Model resist systems were prepared by mixing orthonaphthoquinonediazides and 2,3,6-trimethylphenol or the diazide plus Novolak resin. Under ambient thermal and humidity conditions, ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the diazide yields 3-indenecarboxylic acid as the final photoproduct. However, UV exposure in vacuo results in ester formation via a ketene-phenolic OH reaction. The decomposition pathway and ensuing reactions have been shown to be the same for both 1- and 3-orthonaphthoquinonediazides attached to mono- and trihydroxybenzophenones. The technological implications for resist processing derived from these studies are also discussed.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

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IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:23 ,  Issue: 1 )