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Optimization of Indium-Lead Alloys for Controlled Collapse Chip Connection Application

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1 Author(s)
Howard, R.T. ; IBM General Technology Division laboratory, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452, USA

Indium-lead solders are used for IBM controlled collapse chip connections (C-4s) to improve fatigue life in temperature cycling for large chip applications. Using 50% In-Pb alloy, which is expensive, has posed a number of manufacturing and reliability concerns. This paper presents the results of development studies leading to the use of a low-indium solder alloy for C-4 applications. This alloy overcomes all previous concerns while exceeding the fatigue life specification of the high-indium alloy. Also described are the variables and tests used to evaluate C-4 performance of In-Pb alloys over the 5% to 50% range. Results are presented graphically and mathematically to show the improvement obtained with indium-content solders over the conventional tin-lean alloys.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:26 ,  Issue: 3 )