Skip to Main Content
This paper discusses resolution limits for electron-beam fabrication. Electron beams have been used to produce structures 1 nm in size and useful devices with minimum features of about 20 nm. In all cases the resolution is set primarily by the range of the electron interaction phenomena that form the structures, and not by the size of the electron beam used to write the patterns. The beam can be as small as 0.5 nm. All useful devices built to date have been fabricated with conventional resist processes; these have an ultimate resolution of about 10 nm. Experimental data for PMMA, the highest-resolution electron resist, show that resolution is independent of molecular weight and is therefore not a function of the molecular size. The most promising of the methods offering resolution below 10 nm is the direct sublimation of materials such as AlF
Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.