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To show the capability and diversity of finite element analysis, we calculate three-dimensional planar anisotropic stress distributions for various thin-film geometries and materials in response to thermal and electrical stimuli, for specific boundary conditions. The simulated residual film stresses are verified with acoustic microscopy measurements, substrate flexure measurements, and the use of thermal environment techniques. Simple shapes are analyzed as building blocks for more complex structures. Effects of nonlinear electrical resistance are also analyzed.
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