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The design and applications of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) operated in the time-delay-and-integration (TDI) mode are reviewed. Design issues regarding the use of the TDI-CCD imager for visible imaging applications are discussed. Aspects pertaining to its parallel array, serial-to-parallel interface, serial register, modulation transfer function (MTF), discrete charge motion, motion synchronization, clocking, number of integrating stages, noise, dynamic range, sensitivity, output uniformity, device yield, pixel size, and spectral response are highlighted in the context of their effect on system performance. Its imaging characteristics are compared to those of the photodiode linear array imager, and design studies and experimental results for a family of TDI-CCD imagers for scanning documents and museum art objects are described. .sk 4mm
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