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Feature-scale simulation of resist-patterned electrodeposition

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1 Author(s)
Dukovic, J.O. ; IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA

A numerical simulation of resist-patterned or “through-mask” electroplating has been performed to investigate shape evolution at the scale of small lithographic features. Shape evolution and step coverage have a significant influence on the shapes of such microelectronic structures as conductor lines, vias, and magnetic pole pieces. The simulation and associated analysis are based on a model for the rate distribution of the electrodeposition reaction that includes the depletion of the depositing metal ions and the inhibiting action of leveling agents. A stagnant boundary layer is assumed to be present, and the diffusion theory of leveling with a one-parameter description of kinetic inhibition is employed. The results show that when the geometry of a feature cavity makes possible the occurrence of concentration-field effects (such as radial diffusion), an uneven metal-ion flux should cause nonuniform growth at high fractions of the limiting current, and leveling agents should exert an opposing effect, even causing a strong reverse nonuniformity in some cases.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:37 ,  Issue: 2 )