By Topic

Terrestrial cosmic rays

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $33
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
J. F. Ziegler ; IBM Research Divisim, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorlcown Heights, New York 10598, USA

This paper reviews the basic physics of those cosmic rays which can affect terrestrial electronics. Cosmic rays at sea level consist mostly of neutrons, protons, pions, muons, electrons, and photons. The particles which cause significant soft fails in electronics are those particles with the strong interaction: neutrons, protons, and pions. At sea level, about 95% of these particles are neutrons. The quantitative flux of neutrons can be estimated to within 3×, and the relative variation in neutron flux with latitude, altitude, diurnal time, earth's sidereal position, and solar cycle is known with even higher accuracy. The possibility of two particles of a cascade interacting with a single circuit to cause two simultaneous errors is discussed. The terrestrial flux of nucleons can be attenuated by shielding, making a significant reduction in the electronic system soft-error rate. Estimates of such attenuation are made.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 1 )