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Methods used for the modeling and numerical simulation of the plasma processes used in semiconductor integrated-circuit fabrication are reviewed. In the first part of the paper, we review continuum and kinetic methods. A model based on the drift-diffusion equations is presented as an example of a continuum model; the model and associated numerical solutions are discussed. The most widely used simulation method for kinetic modeling is the Particle-In-Cell/Monte-Carlo-Collision (PIC/MCC) method, in which the plasma is modeled by a system of charged superparticles (each of which represents a collection of a large number of ions or electrons) that move in self-consistent electromagnetic fields and collide via given collision cross sections. In the second part of the paper, we review the modeling and simulation of the evolution of surface topography in plasma etching and deposition.
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