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Device characteristics and reliability in a 3.3-V logic CMOS technology with various gate oxidation and nitridation processes are described. The technology was designed to extend 3.3-V devices to the ultimate dielectric reliability limit while maintaining strict manufacturing cost control. A nitrided gate oxide provided the means to maintain hot-electron reliability at the level of the previous iteration, but at higher performance and lower processing cost. Conventional furnace processes in nitrous and nitric oxide, high-pressure oxidation in oxygen and nitrous oxide, and rapid-thermal processes using nitrous and nitric oxide were investigated. We found that the concomitant variations in fixed charge and thermal budget have a significant influence on both n-FET and p-FET device parameters such as threshold voltage, carrier mobility, and inverse short-channel effect (ISCE). Reliability effects, such as charge to breakdown (Q
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