By Topic


Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $31
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Hefferon, George J. ; IBM Microelectronics Division, Hopewell Junction, New York, USA

Reviews on the historical growth of the semiconductor industry usually refer to the prediction by Gordon Moore in 1975 that circuit density would double every couple of years. The realization of this dramatic increase in integration over the last twenty-five years has been achieved primarily through lithographic scaling, resulting from many innovations in lithographic exposure systems, masks, resists, processes, and metrology. Throughout this period IBM has made many of the most significant contributions to the development of semiconductor lithographic technology. These contributions were often made long before industry adoption and frequently involved innovations across multiple disciplines.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 5 )