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In 2001, IBM delivered to the marketplace a high-performance UNIX®-class eServer based on a four-chip multichip module (MCM) code named Regatta. This MCM supports four POWER4 chips, each with 170 million transistors, which utilize the IBM advanced copper back-end interconnect technology. Each chip is attached to the MCM through 7018 flip-chip solder connections. The MCM, fabricated using the IBM high-performance glass-ceramic technology, features 1.7 million internal copper vias and high-density top-surface contact pad arrays with 100-µm pads on 200-µm centers. Interconnections between chips on the MCM and interconnections to the board for power distribution and MCM-to-MCM communication are provided by 190 meters of co-sintered copper wiring. Additionally, the 5100 off-module connections on the bottom side of the MCM are fabricated at a 1-mm pitch and connected to the board through the use of a novel land grid array technology, thus enabling a compact 85-mm × 85-mm module footprint that enables 8- to 32-way systems with processors operating at 1.1 GHz or 1.3 GHz. The MCM also incorporates advanced thermal solutions that enable 156 W of cooling per chip. This paper presents a detailed overview of the fabrication, assembly, testing, and reliability qualification of this advanced MCM technology.
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