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The design and performance of land grid array (LGA) sockets are discussed with respect to high-performance server applications. Motivations for the use of this technology are presented, and the specific challenges associated with its application are discussed from a mechanical perspective. A variety of mechanical performance considerations are identified for LGA socket technologies, and a detailed evaluation of competing socket-actuation designs is presented using finite element structural analysis. Some design approaches are shown to suffer from excessive mechanical flexure, which can consume the allowable range of motion of the contact, resulting in excessive contact load variation within the LGA. Statistical considerations for the mechanical deflections and tolerances that contribute to range-of-motion consumption are developed using Monte Carlo techniques, and a parametric study of the mechanical design variables that influence contact load variation within the LGA is presented.
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