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Superconformal film growth: Mechanism and quantification

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4 Author(s)
Moffat, T.P. ; National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, Building 224, Room B166, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA ; Wheeler, D. ; Edelstein, M.D. ; Josell, D.

Superconformal electrodeposition of copper is explained by the recently developed curvature-enhanced-accelerator coverage (CEAC) model, which is based on the assumptions that 1) the local growth velocity is proportional to the surface coverage of the accelerator, or catalyst, and 2) the catalyst remains segregated at the metal/electrolyte interface during copper deposition. For growth on nonplanar geometries, this leads to enrichment of the catalyst on advancing concave surfaces and dilution on advancing convex sections, thereby giving rise to bottom-up superfilling of submicrometer trenches and vias. In this paper the robustness of the CEAC model is demonstrated by characterizing the kinetics of catalyst accumulation and consumption in a series of electroanalytical experiments on planar electrodes. The model is then used to successfully predict interface shape evolution during feature filling in a variety of experiments, without using adjustable parameters.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 1 )