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The IPS programs have succeeded in bringing cryptography to a large community of users, both programmers and nonprogrammers, at IBM computing centers. IPS has contributed significant augmentations to the Data Encryption Standard: techniques of cryptographic chaining, which help to conceal the underlying structure of plaintext; a consistent definition of the encipherment of data of any length (not just multiples of eight bytes); and an increased numbero f ways in which cryptographic keys can be defined by users. Some of these implementation options are also included in the IBM cryptographic products.
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