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While it is becoming increasingly obvious that the fundamental architecture of a system has a profound influence on the quality of its human factors, the vast majority of human factors studies concern the surface of hardware (keyboards, screens) or the very surface of the software (command names, menu formats). In this paper, we discuss human factors and system architecture. We offer best-guess guidelines for what a system should be like and how it should be developed. In addition, we suggest ways in which advances in research and education could result in systems with better human factors. This paper is based on an address by L. M. Branscomb and a publication by the authors in the Proceedings of the IFIP 9th World Computer Congress, Paris, France, September 19, 1983.
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