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The creation of new technology for software development and rapid technology transfer from research into product development remain notable challenges for software researchers and practitioners. One model for cooperation between universities, governments, and companies is the applied research center. This model was reformulated for software and implemented in 1990 at the IBM Toronto Software Solutions Laboratory in Ontario, Canada. Called the Centre for Advanced Studies (CAS), it brings together the efforts of researchers and developers under a funding program supported by a number of North American universities, the Canadian government, and IBM
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