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The regulatory landscape that enterprises face today has been characterized by an unrelenting increase in the number of governmental regulations. Since 1981, more than 118,000 regulations have been introduced in the United States alone. These include the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, the well-known Patriot Act of 2001, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Similar regulations, such as the Japanese Personal Information Protection Act of April 2005, have been enacted in other countries. Other regulations, such as Basel II for the banking industry, have been issued by international agreement. Regulations have significantly increased the costs and the risks of doing business. The trend of business process outsourcing and the dynamics of disaggregated value nets only compound the challenge of dealing with compliance requirements. The concomitant explosion of information in enterprises adds to the challenge of leveraging that information to improve business performance while developing effective controls to manage the integrity and security of the information.
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