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In wireless sensor networks, proposed an energy efficient routing strategy based on ant colony algorithm. The algorithm combined residual energy of nodes, and accorded to transition probability to choose the next node. When ants passed a node, updated the path list and node information table .Through the node information table, nodes in the network are divided into ordinary nodes and aggregation nodes, formed a tree network looking ordinary nodes as leaves, aggregation nodes as tree branches, sink nodes as tree roots. In the aggregation nodes, data fusion is processed. So traffic is reduced and the energy is saved. The simulation proved that this algorithm improved the load balancing problem and extended the network life cycle.