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Geometric Distortion Insensitive Image Watermarking in Affine Covariant Regions

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4 Author(s)
Xinbo Gao ; School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi¿an, China ; Cheng Deng ; Xuelong Li ; Dacheng Tao

Feature-based image watermarking schemes, which aim to survive various geometric distortions, have attracted great attention in recent years. Existing schemes have shown robustness against rotation, scaling, and translation, but few are resistant to cropping, nonisotropic scaling, random bending attacks (RBAs), and affine transformations. Seo and Yoo present a geometrically invariant image watermarking based on affine covariant regions (ACRs) that provide a certain degree of robustness. To further enhance the robustness, we propose a new image watermarking scheme on the basis of Seo's work, which is insensitive to geometric distortions as well as common image processing operations. Our scheme is mainly composed of three components: 1) feature selection procedure based on graph theoretical clustering algorithm is applied to obtain a set of stable and nonoverlapped ACRs; 2) for each chosen ACR, local normalization, and orientation alignment are performed to generate a geometrically invariant region, which can obviously improve the robustness of the proposed watermarking scheme; and 3) in order to prevent the degradation in image quality caused by the normalization and inverse normalization, indirect inverse normalization is adopted to achieve a good compromise between the imperceptibility and robustness. Experiments are carried out on an image set of 100 images collected from Internet, and the preliminary results demonstrate that the developed method improves the performance over some representative image watermarking approaches in terms of robustness.

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IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews)  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 3 )