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Based on self-adaptive fuzzy PID control, the autopilot for the longitudinal channel of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) is designed, which uses the theory of self-adaptive control and combines the traditional PID control method with fuzzy control method. Simulation results show that the algorithm of the self-adaptive fuzzy PID controller is easy. And the self-adaptive capacity of the system has been proved to be enhanced by comparing the control effect of two feature points about pitching attitude control channel with traditional PID controller. At the same time, the dynamic performance of the controlled object has been demonstrated to be improved through the comparison of the control effect about altitude control channel and the traditional PID controller. Moreover, the controller designed in this paper can be applicable to nonlinear and time-varying object such as UAV.