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In Vitro Investigations Into Enhancement of tPA Bioavailability in Whole Blood Clots Using Pulsed–High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Exposures

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9 Author(s)
Guy Jones ; Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA ; Finnie Hunter ; Hilary A. Hancock ; Ankur Kapoor
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Investigations were carried out on the manner by which pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enhances the effectiveness of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in whole blood clots, in vitro. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) of the surface of the clots showed that the exposures increased exposed fibrin, as well as the number of openings to more interior regions. These findings were supported by fluorescent antibody labeling of tPA in frozen sections of clots treated post-HIFU. Here, improved accumulation at the surface and penetration of the tPA into the clots were observed in those treated with HIFU. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was also performed, indicating that the diffusion coefficient increased 6.3-fold for fluorescently labeled dextrans, comparable in size to tPA, in the HIFU-treated clots. Improved understanding of the manner by which pulsed-HIFU exposures can improve the effectiveness of thrombolytics will help optimize the exposures for this application and potentially facilitate translation to the clinic.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  (Volume:57 ,  Issue: 1 )