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Image segmentation remains one of the major challenges in image analysis. Many segmentation algorithms have been developed for various applications. Unsatisfactory results have been encountered in some cases, for many existing segmentation algorithms. In this paper, we introduce three modified versions of the conventional moving k-means clustering algorithm called the fuzzy moving k-means, adaptive moving k-means and adaptive fuzzy moving k-means algorithms for image segmentation application. Based on analysis done using standard images (i.e. original bridge and noisy bridge) and hard evidence on microscopic digital image (i.e. segmentation of Sprague Dawley rat sperm), our final segmentation results compare favorably with the results obtained by the conventional k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means algorithms. The qualitative and quantitative analysis done proved that the proposed algorithms are less sensitive with respect to noise. As such, the occurrence of dead centers, center redundancy and trapped center at local minima problems can be avoided. The proposed clustering algorithms are also less sensitive to initialization process of clustering value. The final center values obtained are located within their respective groups of data. This enabled the size and shape of the object in question to be maintained and preserved. Based on the simplicity and capabilities of the proposed algorithms, these algorithms are suitable to be implemented in consumer electronics products such as digital microscope, or digital camera as post processing tool for digital images.