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Modified rectangular patches for self-oscillating active-antenna applications

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3 Author(s)
J. Bartolic ; Fac. of Electr. Eng. & Comput., Zagreb Univ., Croatia ; D. Bonefacic ; Z. Sipus

Two modifications to a rectangular-patch antenna, suitable for the integration of active devices, are presented. In the first modification, the impedance inverter was placed in the rectangular opening formed by removing the central part of the patch. This modification allows optimal matching of the active device by changing the position, width, and length of the impedance-line transformer. An oscillating antenna, using this modified patch and a Gunn diode, showed a high EIRP, higher spectral purity, and substantially lower cross-polarization levels, in comparison with the reference active antenna with an unmodified patch. Because of the higher overall Q, this modification is recommended for active-antenna applications with active devices that have a narrower negative-resistance bandwidth. In the second modification, an active device (Gunn diode) was integrated directly into a rectangular opening inside the patch, without the use of a line transformer. This reduced the overall Q of the antenna, thus allowing wide-band frequency tuning by changing the bias voltage. A clear spectrum, with no spurious components of the free-running oscillating antenna, was observed. Radiation patterns in the E and H planes were measured. Low levels of cross-polarization, as for the first modification, were obtained. Injection-locking properties were investigated throughout the tuning range. A relatively wide locking range, with a good locking gain, was achieved. Such a miniaturized wide-band VCO antenna is applicable for integration in injection-locked active arrays, and spatial power combiners

Published in:

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 4 )