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Gold-nanoparticle-based hyperthermia has attracted considerable attention in the recent ten years in cancer treatment. In hyperthermia-based cancer treatment, in order to produce efficient thermal therapy yet without excessive heat damage to human body, besides the steady-state thermal condition, the transient thermal response is of vital importance. As part of theoretical research associated with nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia therapy for cancer treatment, the transient heat transfer process of laser interacting with gold nanoparticle in tissue-like medium is investigated. Within the framework of dual-phase-lag (DPL) model, this paper focuses on the microscopic heat transfer performance of a gold nanoparticle in a surrounding medium. A semianalytical solution of 1-D nonhomogenous DPL equation in spherical coordinates is presented for a heat transfer process with a constant laser heat source and a short-pulsed laser heating source. Results show that the transient temperature calculated by DPL model greatly exceeds that predicted by the classical diffusion model, with either a constant source or a pulsed source. This phenomenon is mainly attributed by the phase lag of heat flux in the surrounding tissue.