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This paper analyses the requirements of file protection. It proposes an improved role-based access control model, which is based on the analysis of shortcomings of traditional RBAC model. This model improves the traditional RBAC model, and imports the concept of user group and object role, also presents the principal authorized the users and the roles. Finally produces the formal definition of the improved RBAC model, and designs a file protection system based on this model, which realizes fine grain access control to file, and also has advantages of flexible authorization, strong safety, simple maintenance, etc.