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Inverse radiation problem for one-dimensional non-uniform medium has been investigated. A stochastic particle swarm optimization algorithm (SPSO) with a stochastic selection is adopted to estimate the absorption coefficients in a one-dimensional absorbing, emitting medium. The directional radiative intensities simulated by discrete ordinate method are served as input for the inverse problems. The performances of this algorithm on the accuracy of estimation are examined. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can guarantee the convergence of the global optimization solution, and is proved to be fast. The absorption coefficients could be estimated accurately.