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The mechanism of swarm flocking phenomena is investigated in this paper, and a distributed coadaptive control algorithm is presented for swarm robot system. We prove that this controller can enable all swarm members to converge to a common velocity only by means of the local information, then the finish time of flocking can be estimated. An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is adopted to solve the energy optimization problem. Simulation results are included to verify the controller and algorithm.